Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) is known by a variety of names, including gender reassignment surgery (GRS), sex change surgery, sex affirmation procedures, and genital reconstruction surgery. These procedures, which are known clinically as genitoplasty procedures, are done to surgically change the genitalia from one gender to another.
For most patients undergoing SRS, the surgery is performed in order to match their physical gender with what they feel emotionally and intuitively is their true gender. This condition, known as gender dysphoria or gender identity disorder, is rare but becoming more widely diagnosed. You may also hear these people being referred to as “transgender.”
MALE TO FEMALE TRANSITION MediConsults
The procedures that change male genitalia to female genitalia include a penectomy (removal of penis) and orchiectomy (removal of the testes), which are typically followed by a vaginoplasty (creation of the vagina) or a feminizing genitoplasty (creation of female genitalia).
For those born male and transitioning to female, there may also be procedures that include breast implants, gluteoplasty to increase buttock volume, a procedure to minimize the appearance of the Adam’s apple, and possibly, feminizing hormones.
Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is often done to soften the more masculine lines of the face. Each patient is unique and the procedures that are done are based on the individual need and budget, but facial feminization often includes softening the brow line, rhinoplasty (nose job), smoothing the jaw and forehead, and altering the cheekbones. For some, a chondrolaryngoplasty, commonly known as a “tracheal shave,” can help reduce the prominence of the Adam’s apple.
Female to Male Transition MediConsults
The procedure that changes female genitalia to male genitalia is a masculinizing genitoplasty (creation of male genitalia). This procedure uses the tissue of the labia to create a penis.
The procedures that change the genitalia are rarely performed without other procedures, which may be extensive. For those born female, the change to a masculine appearance may also include hormone therapy with testosterone, a mastectomy, a hysterectomy procedure, and perhaps additional cosmetic procedures intended to masculinize the appearance.